From The Urbach Letter –
Your Emergency Kit – What's In It?
We got off easy this time. Hurricane Irene had the potential to devastate the Northeast. If its course had shifted just slightly, there was a strong possibility that Irene could have intensified (to a category 4 hurricane perhaps) instead of weakening to a Cat 1 or tropical storm. Some areas including Vermont and Upstate New York got walloped but it all could have been much, much worse. Most of us escaped with minimal damage and just a modicum of inconvenience. But what about next time?...
When it comes to potential disaster scenarios, smart people don't just hope for the best. (Note: It's OK to hope for the best – as long as you also prepare for the worst.) If you live along the Eastern Seaboard, you're probably sick and tired of hearing the often-repeated what-to-do advice proffered your utility company, municipality, and government agencies. This advice falls into two broad categories: (1) the things you should (or shouldn't) do before, during, and after the disaster, and (2) the things you must *have* to ensure your safety and comfort throughout the event .
The problem with the second "stuff you must have" category is timing. By the time that info reaches you AND you pay attention to it, many of the things you need to acquire will be unavailable: batteries, bottled water, and storm-proofing supplies sell out very quickly. Other needed items may not be available in time. Besides, you'll have more important things to do than rush around town trying to stock up your emergency kit and "go bag."
But now that things have quieted down, and thousands of other people aren't trying to buy the same stuff you are, it's the perfect time to ensure you'll be prepared for whatever Mother Nature decides to throw at us next...
To follow is an excerpt from a very long article on disaster preparedness I originally wrote in 2003 and updated several years later. It contains a comprehensive, printable "shopping list" of items you'll need for your state-of-the-art disaster survival kit.
Preparing for Disaster
On Long Island, where I live, we're overdue for a devastating hurricane. The last category three hurricane to strike our area was way back in 1938. When it hit us, seven hundred people died. Nearly ten thousand buildings were destroyed and sixty-three thousand were left homeless. Experts predict that another hurricane of similar force would cause even greater devastation today, due to the increased population and development in the area. They believe the next time a Cat three storm like the "Long Island Express" roars through, it might be The Greatest Disaster in U.S. History (Don't click this link if you scare easily).
No matter where you live, your local area has its own potential for a similar doomsday event: a tornado, forest fire, earthquake, flood, etc. Human error and carelessness can also cause massive disruption: a large hazmat spill, extended blackout, nuclear event, etc. Because of all these variables, I can't give you a "one size fits all" solution. I'm biasing my recommendations towards urban terrorism and hurricane preparedness. You'll need to regionalize the lists and customize them to fit your family size and situation. You also have to decide if you're going to plan for a short-term, mid-term, or long-term disruption. Experts recommend that everyone be able to live independently (i.e., totally "off the grid") for at least seventy-two hours… three days. In most areas of the country, that's how long it may take for help to reach you in a major disaster. That's Level I survival. Level II is a survival plan to live without normal amenities or assistance for 20 days. Level III is the plan and supplies to survive for at least 60 days. In this short article, I'll concentrate on Level I. This goes with my "reasonable worst-case" mentality (as opposed to worst-worst case). Nonetheless, we've all seen first-hand how fragile our infrastructure is. When the forecast of a moderate snowstorm causes people to rush the supermarkets, clearing shelves of bread and milk, it doesn't take too much imagination to visualize civilization breaking down quickly after a truly disruptive event.
Imagine you suddenly have no electricity, no running water, no natural gas, no heat, no telephone service, etc. Assume you are in your home or office, and it's not safe to leave. Emergency services are unavailable. Police and fire departments are overextended; even if you were able to contact them, they couldn't respond. You're on your own… What will you do? We're so used to all the conveniences of modern life: lights, appliances, TV, communications, phones, Internet, climate control, etc. When they're suddenly taken away, few of us know how to cope. In these circumstances, panic can set in quickly. Please remember, this is not worst-worst case. There is a fairly good chance you'll face this scenario one day. It sure makes sense to me to have an action plan to deal with that possibility. It makes sense to collect the items for a survival kit *before* they're needed. You will NOT be able to obtain them after the event occurs. In the event of a sudden disaster your best course of action is often to remain near your home (unless you have good reason to evacuate). Here are your priorities: water, food, heat, lighting, physical protection & safety, health, communications, and sanitation.
Drinking Water. Water is absolutely essential to survival. You can go without food for a month or more, but you'll get sick and die from dehydration within a week if you don't have any water to drink. First priority then is to make sure you have enough drinking water. Enough means at least one full gallon per person per day, plus one half gallon per day for each companion animal you want to keep alive. That's a lot of drinking water. For a typical family of four plus a dog, that's 4-1/2 gallons times 3 days = 13-1/2 gallons (90 gallons for twenty days). For the 3 day supply, which I keep, I store six 2-1/2 gallon "Poland Spring" tap containers. Since we use these for our regular drinking water anyway, I just "rotate the stock" to keep the emergency supply fresh. Untreated tap water has a shelf life of up to one year. You can also make your own supply of emergency drinking water by collecting clean containers (rinsed two liter soda bottles work well) and filling them with tap water. Some people add a few drops of Clorox to each bottle to prevent the growth of bacteria or algae. This works and is reasonably safe but does introduce an off taste to the water, as you can imagine. By the way, if you have a large tank-style water heater, it can be a good source of drinking water from the bottom spigot, particularly if you shut the intake valve to prevent possible contamination from the mains water.
Washing Water. In addition to drinking water, you will need lots of water for washing and sanitation. You can reduce the amount required by stocking up on paper plates, cups, and utensils that don't need to be cleaned. If you're at home after a disaster, and the tap is still running, fill all your bathtubs. However, you may not want to trust the water quality, particularly after an earthquake, flood, or other massive disturbance. There's a good chance that contaminants could be drawn into the water system. Some people plan ahead and fill a clean trash barrel with a tight-fitting lid. The barrel is placed in the backyard, garage, or storage shed. Occasional treatment with a few drops of chlorine bleach is recommended. If the lid locks in place, so much the better. If you have small children around, all water buckets must have tight fitting lids. Toddlers have tragically drowned in just a few inches of bucket water.
Sanitation Water. If you lose running water, sanitation will become a major issue. You must therefore save your "grey water," the soapy water that was used for washing dishes, bathing, etc. Don't let it run down the drain. Collect it in a bucket instead. Even if you don't have a water supply to your toilet, it can still be used. A toilet can be "manually" flushed by rapidly pouring in about a half gallon of any liquid into the bowl, all at once. This is assuming you have safe access to a bathroom. You may not. Therefore, your disaster kit must include a makeshift toilet. A good, inexpensive one can be fashioned from a five gallon plastic "spackle" bucket (they sell clean empty buckets at Home Depot) and a toilet seat. Use 13 gallon kitchen trash can liners.
Food. This guide is for "Level I" survival, meaning independence for three days. Preparing for longer duration events is somewhat outside the scope of this short article. Because we're only talking about three days, food is not essential to sustain life. However, it plays a very important psychological role. Everyone's stress level will be through the roof, and food provides security and comfort. You'll need a supply of food that will keep fresh for long periods without refrigeration. Canned foods will store safely for many years. You'll be very surprised when you shop for your survival kit, by the variety of interesting things you can get in a can these days. (Don't forget to include a manual can opener in your kit.) Another good choice for your kit are "dry goods" such as grains, cereals, and pasta. However, these require precious drinking water for cooking, and airtight storage. Remember, if air can get in, so can bugs, and you don't want that. Other choices are "meals in a pouch." These come in foil packs, which just require a little water for preparation. Camping foods are another option. These are freeze-dried, lightweight, and long-lasting. However, they are very expensive. Just bear in mind, for the relatively short-term duration survival event we're considering here, the more familiar, comforting, and filling the food is, the better.
Food Storage and Preparation. Don't count on having refrigeration. If possible, eat up your refrigerator food as soon as you lose electricity. Eat from the freezer next, although if you lose power to the fridge, you won't be able to use your microwave, oven, toaster oven, etc. Gnawing on a semi-frozen block isn't too much fun. Be really careful with mayo based foods and others that can quickly "turn." The last thing you want is to get food poisoning at a time like this. Thankfully, mustard and ketchup don't require refrigeration, and can make boring foods taste a lot better. Your camping gear can serve double-duty in your survival kit. A good portable camp stove is essential. A mantle lantern is very nice to have too. You'll need to decide between propane and white gas as fuel. Propane is cleaner, easier to use, and safer. White gas is cheap and you can substitute unleaded fuel siphoned from your car's gas tank in a pinch. Propane may not be as easily available. If you can take your gas barbeque grill inside, that might be suitable but… and I hope this goes without saying, NEVER use a charcoal grill inside an enclosed space. The carbon monoxide could kill you.
Lighting. You must have several good flashlights and plenty of alkaline or lithium batteries on hand. LED bulb models are particularly suitable in this situation. They give good light yet last much, much longer on a set of batteries than regular flashlights. However, there is no substitute for a good mantle lantern, which can give as much light as a regular light fixture. It's amazing how big a psychological boost good light can give you. I know this firsthand from a multi-day blackout we had during an ice storm a few years ago.
Money. If you need to evacuate, cash will be an essential element of your survival kit. That's because we have a cashless lifestyle and don't normally keep large amounts of cash money around. Most of our purchases are made with credit cards, debit cards, or checks. However, during and after a major disaster, it's unlikely that merchants will be able to process charge cards or validate checks. If people are selling things, they're probably going to accept cash only. Also, they may not be able to open their electric cash drawers, so don't count on getting change back from your hundred. Better to have smaller denomination bills available. Keep some fifties though. They may come in handy for bribes. Don't laugh. I'm totally serious. In addition to a hefty cash supply, you will also need to assemble a 72-Hour Emergency Financial Kit (This is a PDF file; please click only once and wait for it to download).
Communications. In a major disaster, wired phone service will almost certainly be disrupted; lines may be cut or the circuits jammed. Your cell phone service will probably remain operational, although it will likely be overloaded. You'll have to keep trying to get an open cell. If landline phones are down, then cable TV is probably off the air, although broadcast stations will most likely still transmit. However, unless you have a pair of "rabbit ears" lying around, and know how to hook them up, you're not going to receive those signals. A totally essential survival item then is a working AM/FM radio. That means a battery-operated one with fresh batteries available. It may be your sole link to the outside world. Even better, get a Kaito Electronics Voyager Solar/Dynamo Emergency Radio. In this age of global Internet access, the concept of getting all your information through a transistor radio seems awfully quaint. However, you'll be very happy you have that little device. With it, you'll be able to find out what's happening in your local area and statewide. You'll hear how widespread the destruction is, and whether you can expect help to arrive anytime soon. Most importantly, you'll hear evacuation orders if they're announced. Other important information may concern whether the water supply is safe to drink or not, and whether civil disturbances like rioting or looting are taking place. (Unfortunately, disaster situations bring out the worst as well as the best in human nature.) Bottom line: you'll only be able to protect yourself and your family if you know what's happening. Some people consider a firearm or other weapon an essential part of their survival kit. This goes along with the survivalist fantasy of being threatened by people desperate for food and water. In good conscience, I cannot advise you in this area. You should know the chance of a horrible accidental discharge far outweighs that of needing a gun to fend off marauders. To me, having a cudgel or baseball bat makes more sense. Rent the movie Casino for detailed usage instructions.
Health. You need a first aid kit and you need to know how to use it. This checklist has the essential items:
And this little spiral-bound book will give you the basics of first aid: FastAct Pocket First Aid Guide. You can't count on anyone coming to help
you. If there are injured people around, you're going to have to help them
by yourself. However, if you have the supplies, and a little knowledge of what to
do, you'll be able to render good emergency care, even to yourself. The most
important thing is to remain calm so you can think clearly. If people in your
household take medicines on a regular basis, you'll need to have access to them.
The best is an extra supply in the emergency kit, but you need to make sure they
don't go out of date.
Storage. My own disaster plan includes a three-day supply of most items, with both storage and a safe room in the basement. I keep everything in Rubbermaid Totelockers. These have enough storage capacity, yet can be loaded in a vehicle if we need to evacuate. While not waterproof, they seal reasonably well and are water/dust resistant. Some people like to use new 33 gallon plastic garbage cans for storing survival gear. While the cans can do double duty in an emergency, holding water or waste, they're not very transportable. Regardless, what you don't want are dozens of little boxes holding your stuff. It would take too long to get them into your vehicle if you have to leave quickly. Fuel storage is a problem. White gas for your camp stove or mantle lantern should normally be stored outside of the house. If you do decide to keep some in your emergency storage area, be sure to store it well away from food or other things that could become contaminated by fumes or spills.
Summary. There's a lot more to this survival business, of course. Whole books have been written… However, just having this short article in your possession and taking the nominal effort to assemble your 72-hour survival kit will put you in the top 1% of all people able to cope in a disaster situation. The other 99% will not have the knowledge or resources to make it through safely. Having said that, it is my sincere hope this has been the most USELESS article I've ever written – and that all your study and preparation will be for naught. Nonetheless, please print the checklists, gather what's needed, and assemble your survival kit. Think of it as cheap insurance that will bring you great peace of mind.
(c) Copyright 2002-2011 Victor Urbach
This article may be reprinted with permission and attribution